Citations in an essay how to quote


A webpage

Author(s). Name of Page. Date of Posting/Revision. Date of

Access. <electronic address>.

Note: It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available at one date may no longer be available later. Be sure to include the complete address for the site. Also, note the use of angled brackets around the electronic address; MLA requires them for clarity.



An article in an online journal or magazine

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume. Issue

(Year): Pages/Paragraphs. Date of Access <electronic

address>.

Note: Some electronic journals and magazines provide paragraph or page numbers; include them if available. This format is also appropriate to online
magazines; as with a print version, you should provide a complete publication date rather than volume and issue number.



Email

Author. Email to the author. Date.

Note: This same format may be used for personal interviews or personal letters. You need only change the designation accordingly.



A listserv posting

Author. "Title of Posting." Online posting. Date. Name of

listserv. Date of access <electronic address for retrieval>.



An electronic database (such as NewsBank, Ethnic NewsWatch, or Broadcast News)

Provide the bibliographic data for the original source as for any other of its genre, then add the name of the database along with relevant retrieval data (such as version number and/or transcript or abstract number).

In-text attribution is the attribution inside a sentence of material to its source, in addition to an inline citation after the sentence. In-text attribution should be used with direct speech (a source's words between quotation marks or as a block quotation ); indirect speech (a source's words modified without quotation marks); and close paraphrasing . It can also be used when loosely summarizing a source's position in your own words. It avoids inadvertent plagiarism and helps the reader see where a position is coming from. An inline citation should follow the attribution, usually at the end of the sentence or paragraph in question.

To cite the use of a source in the text of an essay, APA advocates two methods:  parenthetical citation and attribution within the essay's content. Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence.  The following is the general form for parenthetical citations in APA style:

Citations in an essay how to quote

citations in an essay how to quote

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