Again, you are probably familiar with the term "criterion-referenced" as it relates to tests designed to assess student achievement on state standards. In such cases, the criterion is a specific score sometimes referred to as a "cut score." Students who do not obtain a score equal to or greater than the "cut score" are assumed not to have mastered the content at the requisite level. Of course, the key to designing such a test is to ensure that it contains items that students will answer correctly if they have a mastery of the content, but will answer incorrectly if they do not. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to design tests with truly valid "cut scores" (see Livingston, 1982).