Crusades term paper

The Muslim Mamluks (slave soldiers) of Egypt ended the Mongol scourge at Ain-Jalut on September 3, 1260. The Mamluks then captured the Christian towns of Caesarea and Jaffa; the fall of Antioch and the ruthless slaughter of thousands of inhabitants in 1268 led to the Eighth Crusade.

After an agreement with his nephew Prince Edward of England, King Louis IX of France began the Eighth Crusade in July of 1270, but died of infectious disease in Tunis on August 25, 1270. Prince Edward then proceeded to Acre with Visconti of Liege in May, 1271. Visconti of Liege soon left Acre, chosen to become Pope Gregory X. The chivalrous Prince, offended by the infighting and corruption in Outremer, and without the military help of Louis IX, decided on diplomatic efforts and arranged a ten-year truce with the Mamluks in the spring of 1272, which also allowed pilgrimage access to Nazareth. Edward stayed until his wife Eleanor of Castile delivered their daughter and then left Acre on September 22. Upon the death of his father Henry III on November 16, 1272, he became King Edward I of England (1272-1307). It was the last of the Crusades to the Holy Land. 82

Unchecked, the Mamluks of Egypt easily conquered the rest of Outremer. The fall of the city of Acre to the Mamluk Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil on May 18, 1291 effectively ended 192 years of Crusader territory in the Holy Land. 83

In the late Middle Ages, transcontinental trade over the land routes of the Silk Road declined as sea trade increased. [17] The Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China , India , Ancient Egypt , Persia , Arabia , and Ancient Rome . Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, many other goods were traded, and various technologies, religions and philosophies, as well as the bubonic plague (the " Black Death "), also traveled along the Silk Routes. Some of the other goods traded included luxuries such as silk, satin , hemp and other fine fabrics, musk , other perfumes, spices, medicines, jewels, glassware, and even rhubarb , as well as slaves. [18] China traded silk, teas, and porcelain; while India traded spices, ivory, textiles, precious stones, and pepper; and the Roman Empire exported gold, silver, fine glassware, wine, carpets, and jewels. Although the term the Silk Road implies a continuous journey, very few who traveled the route traversed it from end to end; for the most part, goods were transported by a series of agents on varying routes and were traded in the bustling markets of the oasis towns. [18] The main traders during Antiquity were the Indian and Bactrian traders, then from the 5th to the 8th century CE the Sogdian traders, then afterward the Arab and Persian traders .

The continuing engagement of the West in many of those same problems seems similarly unending, whether it is a question of geopolitical circumstance or of economics and natural resources. Meanwhile, the very nature of the West’s open societies give space and access to those who would strike back at the presumed source of all their troubles – that is, of course, unless those western nations are prepared to embark on the militarisation of their societies well beyond anything countenanced so far. But the willingness of some politicians of the West (yes, you do know exactly who we’re talking about here) to blame these symptoms for most of the ills now afflicting western nations – and then to use the resulting fears of an increasingly nervous population in order to bolster their grip on their nations’ political life – seems to be gaining ground as well.

Crusades term paper

crusades term paper


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