Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.
Hindi is widely written, spoken and understood in North India and most other places in India. In 1997, a survey found that 66% of Indians can speak Hindi. The most common form of Hindi is known as Hindustani . It has taken words from the Dravidian languages of South India, as well as the Persian , Arabic , Turkish , English , and Portuguese languages. [ source? ] The Hindustani language is almost the same as Urdu , the most commonly spoken language in Pakistan ; the difference is that Urdu is written in the Arabic alphabet . Hindi and Urdu were considered the same language until Pakistan split away from India. However, to this day, both languages are mutually intelligible , meaning that speakers of two different languages can understand each other without knowing the other language.