There were similar developments in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries (. Belgium, Spain, and the Scandinavian countries) had in all faculties triple degree structures of bachelor (or candidate) − licentiate − doctor as opposed to bachelor − master − doctor; the meaning of the different degrees varied a lot from country to country however. To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: for instance, in Sacred theology the degrees are Bachelor of Sacred Theology (STB), Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), and Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD), and in Canon law : Bachelor of Canon Law (JCB), Licentiate of Canon Law (JCL), and Doctor of Canon Law (JCD).
Abstract: Due to their unique properties, nano-particles have gained huge interest in science and industry in the recent years. Since 1995, the amount of published papers on nano-particles has increased nearly exponentially, as well as their applications in industry and our daily life. For instance, in nearly every white wall-paint titan dioxide nano-particles are found, but also in toothpas te and sunscreen. Titan dioxide is just a common example, there is a huge variety in differed materials, which are used in our daily life. In general, the word “nano” seems to be a great word for advertising products in the recent years. But on the other side, medical studies were not as fast to analyse the danger of nano-particles. The large variety of different materials leads to big challenges in analytics and risk assessment. So until today only little is known about the properties of nano-particles and their behavior in our body. It is known, however, that nano-particles are able to penetrate the skin and get easy access to our body. From there they are completely free to move in our body, because of their size. Not even the cell membrane or the blood–brain barrier is capable to withstand the nano-particles.
The size of the nano-particles also leads to different re-activities and properties, which transforms harmless bulk material to potentially dangerous nano-material. During the Science Café. we would like to discuss the general views on nano-particles and answer the question why nano-particles behave so differently from bulk material. We will also talk about the possible analytics for nano-particles and about the possible dangers for the environment and the human body.
The speaker: Martin Kaergell MSc
Martin is currently performing his PhD training at University of Potsdam at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin in the group of Prof. Tauber. The topic of his work is: “Layerformation of Perovskite Nanoparticles with tunable optical and electronical properties”. This out-standing research is partly financed by a Scholarship of the Graduated School “HyPerCell”. He performed his undergraduate studies at university of Potsdam and grooved with a long-term stay in Strasbourg as visiting Scientist in the group of Prof. Douce from IPCMS institute, the french leading research center for material sciences. His high-level experience with nano-particles is only equaled by his enthusiasm for science.
13. Include a title on your proposal. I'm amazed at how often the title is left for the end of the student's writing and then somehow forgotten when the proposal is prepared for the committee. A good proposal has a good title and it is the first thing to help the reader begin to understand the nature of your work. Use it wisely! Work on your title early in the process and revisit it often. It's easy for a reader to identify those proposals where the title has been focused upon by the student. Preparing a good title means: