1. Bringing of Foreign Materials Into Examination Hall: This is a situation where students bring into the examination hall notes, textbooks and other prepared materials. The method is nicknamed as hide and seek, microchips, tattoo and magic desk. Sometimes, students bring into the hall unauthorized materials like sophiscated and scientific calculators Abba (1998) identified some methods like giraffing, contraband, bullet, super print, escort, pregnant biros and so on.
2. Assistance from Educational Stakeholders: Examination stakeholders include parents, teachers, lecturers, security agents, printers, and staff of examination bodies. Some parents go to any length in buying question papers for their children while some others even buy certificates for their children. Supervisors colluding with teachers, school principals or students by allowing teachers to come around to teach the students during examination period, lecturers or teachers releasing question papers or giving underserved marks or allowing students to illegally re-take examination papers. Security agents, printers and staff of examination bodies also sell question papers.